Cessna

Marketing Initiatives

During the 1950s and 1960s Cessna's marketing department followed the lead of Detroit automakers and came up with many unique marketing terms in an effort to differentiate its product line from their competitions'.

Other manufacturers and the aviation press widely ridiculed and spoofed many of the marketing terms, but Cessna built and sold more aircraft than any other manufacturer during the boom years of the 1960s and 1970s. Cessna marketing terminology includes:

  • Para-Lift Flaps: These were the large Fowler flaps Cessna introduced on the 170B in 1952, replacing the narrow chord plain flaps then in use.
  • Land-O-Matic: In 1956, Cessna introduced sprung-steel tricycle landing gear on the 172. The marketing department chose "Land-O-Matic" to imply that these aircraft were much easier to land and take off than the preceding conventional landing gear equipped Cessna 170. They even went as far as to say pilots could do "drive-up take-offs and drive-in landings", implying that flying these aircraft was as easy as driving a car. In later years some Cessna models had their steel sprung landing gear replaced with steel tube gear legs. The 206 retains the original spring steel landing gear today.
  • Omni-Vision: This referred to the rear windows on some Cessna singles, starting with the 182 and 210 in 1962, the 172 in 1963 and the 150 in 1964. The term was intended to make the pilot feel visibility was improved on the notably poor-visibility Cessna line. The introduction of the rear window caused in most models a loss of cruise speed due to the extra drag, while not adding any useful visibility.
  • Cushioned power: This was to announce the introduction of rubber mounts on the cowling of the 1967 model 150, in addition to the rubber mounts isolating the engine from the cabin.
  • Omni-Flash: This referred to the flashing beacon on the tip of the fin that could be seen all around.
  • Open-View: This referred to the removal of the top section of the control wheel in 1967 models. These had been rectangular, they now became "ram's horn" shaped, thus not blocking the instrument panel as much.
  • Quick-Scan: Cessna introduced a new instrument panel layout in the 1960s and this buzzword was to indicate Cessna's panels were ahead of the competition.
  • Nav-O-Matic: This was the name of the Cessna autopilot system, which implied the system was relatively simple.
  • Camber-Lift: This marketing name was used to describe Cessna aircraft wings starting in 1972 when the aerodynamics designers at Cessna added a slightly drooped leading edge to the standard NACA 2412 airfoil used on most of the light aircraft fleet. Writer Joe Christy described the name as "stupid" and added "Is there any other kind [of lift]?"
  • Stabila-Tip: Cessna started commonly using wingtip fuel tanks, carefully shaped for aerodynamic effect rather than being tubular-shaped. Tip tanks do have an advantage of reducing free surface effect of fuel affecting the balance of the aircraft in rolling manoeuvres.

Courtesy of Wikipedia

Suitable Triple R Cessna Aircraft

Cessna 150/152

The Cessna 150 is a two-seat tricycle gear general aviation airplane that was designed for flight training, touring and personal use. The Cessna 150 is the fifth most produced civilian plane ever, with 23,839 aircraft produced. The Cessna 150 was offered for sale in the 150 basic model, Commuter, Commuter II, Patroller and the aerobatic Aerobat models.

Development of the Model 150 began in the mid-1950s with the decision by Cessna Aircraft to produce a successor to the popular Cessna 140 which finished production in 1951. The main changes in the 150 design were the use of tricycle landing gear, which is easier to learn to use than the tailwheel landing gear of the Cessna 140, and replacing the rounded wingtips and horizontal and vertical stabilizers with more modern, squared-off profiles. In addition, the narrow, hinged wing flaps of the 140 were replaced by larger, far more effective Fowler flaps.

The Cessna 150 prototype first flew on September 12, 1957, with production commencing in September 1958 at Cessna's Wichita, Kansas plant. 216 aircraft were also produced by Reims Aviation under license in France. These French manufactured 150s were designated Reims F-150, the "F" indicating they were built in France.

American-made 150s were all produced with the Continental O-200-A 100 hp (75 kW) engine, but the Reims-built aircraft are powered by a Rolls Royce-built Continental O-200-As, with some Continental O-240-A powered versions.

All Cessna 150s have very effective flaps that extend 40 degrees.

The best-performing airplanes in the 150 and 152 fleet are the 1962 Cessna 150B and the 1963 Cessna 150C. Thanks to their light 1,500 lb (680 kg) gross weight and more aerodynamic rear fuselage, they climb the fastest, have the highest ceilings, and require the shortest runways. They have a 109-knot (202 km/h) cruise speed, faster than any other model year of either the 150 or 152.

All models from 1966 onwards have larger doors and increased baggage space. With the 1967 Model 150G the doors were bowed outwards 1.5 inches (38 mm) on each side to provide more cabin elbow room.

Cessna 172

The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is a four-seat, single-engine, high-wing fixed-wing aircraft made by the Cessna Aircraft Company. First flown in 1955, more Cessna 172s have been built than any other aircraft.

Measured by its longevity and popularity, the Cessna 172 is the most successful aircraft in history. Cessna delivered the first production models in 1956. As of 2012, Cessna, and its partners, had built around 60,000. The Skyhawk's main competitors have been the Beechcraft Musketeer and Grumman AA-5 series (neither in production), the Piper Cherokee, and, more recently, the Diamond DA40.

The Cessna 172 started life as a tricycle landing gear variant of the taildragger Cessna 170, with a basic level of standard equipment. In January 1955, Cessna flew an improved variant of the Cessna 170, a Continental O-300-A-powered Cessna 170C with larger elevators and a more angular tailfin. Although the variant was tested and certified, Cessna decided to modify it with a tricycle landing gear, and the modified Cessna 170C flew again on 12 June 1955. To reduce the time and cost of certification, the type was added to the Cessna 170 type certificate as the Model 172. Later, the 172 was given its own type certificate, 3A12. The 172 became an overnight sales success, and over 1,400 were built in 1956, its first full year of production.

Early 172s were similar in appearance to the 170s, with the same straight aft fuselage and tall landing gear legs, although the 172 had a straight tailfin while the 170 had a rounded fin and rudder. Later 172 versions incorporated revised landing gear and the swept-back tailfin, which is still in use today. The final aesthetic development, in the mid-1960s, was a lowered rear deck allowing an aft window. Cessna advertised this added rear visibility as "Omni-Vision." Cessna has not changed the airframe configuration since then, except for updates in avionics and engines, including the Garmin G1000 glass cockpit in 2005. Production halted in the mid-1980s, but resumed in 1996 with the 160 hp (120 kW) Cessna 172R Skyhawk. Cessna supplemented this in 1998 with the 180 hp (135 kW) Cessna 172S Skyhawk SP.

Cessna 182

The Cessna 182 Skylane is an American four-seat, single-engined light airplane, built by Cessna of Wichita, Kansas. It has the option of adding two child seats, installed in the baggage area. Introduced in 1956, the 182 has been produced in a number of variants, including a version with retractable landing gear, and is the second most popular Cessna model, after the 172.

The Cessna 182 was introduced in 1956 as a tricycle gear variant of the 180. In 1957, the 182A variant was introduced along with the name Skylane. As production continued, later models were improved regularly with features such as a wider fuselage, swept tailfin with rear "omni-vision" window, enlarged baggage compartment, higher gross weights, landing gear changes, etc. The "restart" aircraft built after 1996 were different in many other details including a different engine, new seating design, etc.

By mid-2013 Cessna planned to introduce the next model of the 182T, the JT-A, using the 227 hp (169 kW) SMA SR305-230 diesel engine running on Jet-A with a burn rate of 11 U.S. gallons (42 L; 9.2 imp gal) per hour and cruise at 155 kn (287 km/h). The normally aspirated, avgas fueled 182 will remain in production through 2014.

Cessna 206

The Cessna 205, 206, and 207, known variously as the Super Skywagon, Skywagon, Stationair, and Super Skylane are a family of single-engined, general aviation aircraft with fixed landing gear, used in commercial air service and also for personal use. The family was originally developed from the popular retractable-gear Cessna 210 and is produced by Cessna.

The line's combination of a powerful engine, rugged construction and a large cabin has made these aircraft popular bush planes. Cessna describes the 206 as "the sport-utility vehicle of the air." These airplanes are also used for aerial photography, skydiving and other utility purposes. They can also be equipped with floats, amphibious floats and skis. Alternatively, they can be fitted with luxury appointments for use as a personal air transport.

Between the start of production in 1962 and 2006 the total Cessna 205, 206 and 207 production has been 8509 aircraft so far.

Cessna 208 Caravan

The Cessna 208 Caravan is a single-engined turboprop, fixed-tricycle landing gear, short-haul regional airliner and utility aircraft that is built in the United States by Cessna. The airplane typically seats nine passengers with a single pilot, although with a FAR Part 23 waiver it can seat up to fourteen passengers. The aircraft is also used for cargo feederliner operations.

The prototype first flew in December 1982. The production model was certified by the FAA in October 1984. Since then, the Caravan has undergone a number of design evolutions. Working with FedEx, Cessna produced first the Cargomaster, and followed that with the stretched and upgraded Super Cargomaster. The passenger model, the Grand Caravan, was derived from the Super Cargomaster. In January 2013 a higher-powered (867 shp from P&WC PT6A-140) version, the Grand Caravan EX, received FAA certification. This higher-powered version will be produced by a Cessna-AVIC joint venture in China.

Cessna offers the 208B in many configurations. The basic 208 airframe can be outfitted with various types of landing gear, allowing it to operate in a wide variety of environments. Some common adaptations include skis, enlarged tires for unprepared runways, and floats on the Caravan Amphibian model.

The Caravan interior can be outfitted with seats or cargo holds. The standard high-density airline configuration features four rows of 1-2 seating behind the two seats in the cockpit. This variant is capable of holding up to thirteen passengers, although it is marketed as being able to make a profit carrying just four. The cabin can be configured in a low density passenger configuration, with 1-1 seating, as a combination of passengers and cargo, or as a strictly cargo aircraft. Many variants include an underbelly cargo pod, which can be used for additional freight capacity, or for passenger baggage. A number of Caravans are operated as skydiving aircraft with the left-side cargo hatch converted to a roll-up door. On April 28, 2008, Cessna announced that the Garmin G1000 glass cockpit will be standard equipment on all new Caravans.

In May 2012 Cessna announced that an assembly line for the 208 would be established in the People's Republic of China. The government-owned China Aviation Industry General Aircraft (CAIGA) will conduct final assembly of Caravans at its plant in Shijiazhuang for the Chinese market.

Cessna 210

The Cessna 210 Centurion is a six-seat, high-performance, retractable-gear single-engined general aviation aircraft which was first flown in January 1957 and produced by Cessna until 1985.

The early Cessna 210 (210 and 210A) had four seats with a Continental IO-470 engine of 260 hp (190 kW). It was essentially a Cessna 182B to which was added a retractable landing gear, swept tail, and a new wing. In 1961 the fuselage and wing were completely redesigned - the fuselage was made wider and deeper, and a third side window was added. The wing planform remained the same (constant 64" chord from centerline to 100 inches (2,500 mm) out, then straight taper to 44" chord at 208 inches from centerline), but the semi-Fowler flaps (slotted, rear-moving) were extended outboard, from Wing Station 100 to Wing Station 122, which allowed a lower landing speed (FAA certification regulations state that a single-engined aircraft must have a flaps-down, power-off stall speed no greater than 70 miles/hour). To compensate for the reduced aileron span, the aileron profile was changed and its chord enlarged. The 1964 model 210D introduced a 285 hp (213 kW) engine and two small child seats, set into the cavity which contained the mainwheels aft of the passengers.

In 1967 the model 210G introduced a cantilever wing replacing the strut-braced wing. Its planform changed to a constant taper from root chord to tip chord. In 1970 the 210K became the first full six-seat model. This was achieved by replacing the flat leaf-springs used for the retractable main landing gear struts (undercarriage) with tapered tubular steel struts of greater length. This allowed the tires to be nested farther to the rear of the fuselage, making room for the full-size rear seats. In 1979 the 210N model eliminated the folding doors which previously covered the two retracted main wheels. The tubular spring struts retract into shallow channels along the bottom of the fuselage and the wheels fit snugly in closed depressions on the underside of the fuselage. Some models featured de-icing boots as an option.

The aircraft was offered in a normally aspirated version, designated the model 210, as well as the turbocharged T210 and the pressurized P210 versions. The Centurion II was an option introduced in 1970 with improved avionics, and was available in both normally aspirated and turbocharged versions (Turbo Centurion II).

On 21 May 2012 the airworthiness authority responsible for the design, the US Federal Aviation Administration, issued an emergency Airworthiness Directive requiring 3,665 of the cantilever wing Cessna 210s to be inspected for cracks in the spar cap, wing spar and wing. Aircraft with more than 10,000 hours of airframe time were grounded immediately pending a visual inspection.

Cessna 310

The Cessna 310 is an American six-seat, low-wing, twin-engined monoplane that was produced by Cessna between 1954 and 1980. It was the first twin-engined aircraft that Cessna put into production after World War II.

The 310 first flew on January 3, 1953 with deliveries starting in late 1954. The sleek modern lines of the new twin were backed up by innovative features such as engine exhaust thrust augmenter tubes and the storage of all fuel in tip tanks in early models. In 1964, the engine exhaust was changed to flow under the wing instead of the augmenter tubes, which were considered to be noisy.

Typical of Cessna model naming conventions, a letter was added after the model number to identify changes to the original design over the years. The first significant upgrade to the 310 series was the 310C in 1959, which introduced more powerful 260 hp (194 kW) Continental IO-470-D engines. In 1960 the 310D featured swept back vertical tail surfaces. An extra cabin window was added with the 310F.

The 320 Skyknight was developed from the 310F, which featured turbocharged TSIO-470-B engines and a fourth cabin side-window. The Skyknight was in production between 1961 and 1969 (the 320E was named the Executive Skyknight), when it was replaced by the similar Turbo 310.

The 310G was certified in 1961 and introduced the canted wingtip fuel tanks found on the majority of the Cessna twin-engined product line, marketed as 'stabila-tip' tanks by Cessna because they were meant to aid stability in flight. A single side window replaced the rear two windows on the 310K (certified in late 1965), with optional three-blade propellers being introduced as well. Subsequent developments included the 310Q and turbocharged T310Q with a redesigned rear cabin featuring a skylight window, and the final 310R and T310R, identifiable by a lengthened nose containing a baggage compartment. Production ended in 1980. Over the years there were several modifications to the 310 to improve performance. Noted aircraft engineer Jack Riley produced two variants, The Riley Rocket 310 and the Riley Turbostream 310. Riley replaced the standard Continental 310 hp (230 kW) engines with Lycoming TIO-540 350 hp (261 kW) engines. These turbocharged intercooled engines were installed with three-blade Hartzell propellers in a counter-rotating configuration to further increase performance and single-engine safety. At 5,400 lb (2,400 kg). gross weight the aircraft had a weight to power ratio of 7.71 lb (3.50 kg). per horsepower. This resulted in a cruising speed of 260 knots (480 km/h) at 18,000 feet (5,500 m) and a 3,000fpm rate of climb.

Cessna 414

The Cessna 414 is an American light, pressurized, twin-engine transport aircraft built by Cessna. It first flew in 1968 and an improved variant was introduced from 1978 as the 414A Chancellor.

The pressurized 414 was developed to appeal to owners of un-pressurised twin-engined aircraft and was based on the fuselage of the Cessna 421 and used the wing design of the Cessna 401. The 414 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit and a retractable tricycle landing gear. It is powered by two wing-mounted 310hp (231kW) Continental TSIO-520-J horizontally opposed-six piston engines. The prototype, registered N7170C, first flew on 1 November 1968 and production aircraft were available in a number of optional seating arrangements and avionic packages. The name Chancellor was used for models marketed from 1976. An improved variant the Cessna 414A Chancellor was introduced in 1978 with the major change being a re-designed and increased-span wing with integral fuel tanks and an extended nose to give more baggage space.

Cessna 421

The Cessna 421 Golden Eagle is a development of the earlier Cessna 411 light twin-engined personal transport aircraft. The main difference between the two models is that the 421 has a pressurized cabin.

The 421 uses geared Continental GTSIO-520-D engines. The gearing means that rather than the driveshaft being directly connected to the propeller, it drives through a set of reduction gears.

The 421 was first produced in May 1967. The 421A appeared in 1968 and the aircraft was redesigned in 1970 and marketed as the 421B. In 1975 the 421C appeared which featured wet wings, the absence of wingtip fuel tanks and landing gear that was changed from straight-leg to a trailing-link design from the 1981 model year onwards. Production ended in 1985 after 1,901 aircraft had been delivered.

The Cessna 421 was first certified on 1 May 1967 and shares a common type certificate with models 401, 402 411, 414 and 425. Some 421s have been modified to accept turboprop engines, making them very similar to the Cessna 425, which itself is a turboprop development of the 421.

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